The impact of homeownership offers other outcomes. Several researchers have reached the conclusion that, all else being equal, home ownership has a positive impact on children within the household. Among these benefits is an increased educational attainment for children, a lower teen-age pregnancy rate, a higher lifetime annual income for children raised in an owned home. Although the level and benefits of community involvement are hard to measure, several researchers have found that homeowners tend to be more involved in their communities and local governments then renters. For instance, owners participate in a greater number of non-professional organizations and have higher voter participation rates. In addition to higher civic participation, owners also tend to remain in their homes longer, adding stability and familiarity to the neighborhood, and also tend to spend more time and money maintaining their residence.